วารสารวิชาการเทคโนโลยีอุตสาหกรรม (J. Ind. Tech.) อยู่ในฐานข้อมูล TCI กลุ่ม 2 (2563) มีค่า JIF = 0.094 | The Journal of Industrial Technology (J. Ind. Tech.) is indexed in TCI Tier 2 (2020) with impact factor, JTIF 0.094

Articles

Comparison of Selection and Mutation in Genetic Algorithms for Examination Schedule Problem

Science

The purpose of this study is to present the comparison of selection and mutation in genetic algorithms to identify the most accurate parameter of examination schedule problem. Which includes 1) The group of students studying in the same course must take the same exam. 2) A student will have to take 1 examination at same time. 3) The number of students for each examination must not exceed the class capacity. 4) A proctor cannot supervise more than two sessions in the same day. 5) No student should have examinations on consecutive sessions. This study examined the selection based on three methods: Roulette Wheel Selection, Ranking Selection, and Tournament Selection. Similarly, three different methods were employed for mutation namely Swap Mutation, Insertion Mutation, and Inversion Mutation. In addition, the study investigated the most accurate parameter to determine the result by adjusting the probability of mutation, size of population, and the number of generations in the experiment. The result demonstrated that the most accurate parameter was from Tournament Selection and Swap Mutation where the probability of mutation is 75 %. The results showed that the Fitness Function average was 6,168 from 7,350. The experiment also revealed that the number of generations that provided the highest average Fitness Function was 365 generations.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production from Fatty Acids of Palm Oil using Pseudomonas fluorescens TISTR 358

Science

This study aimed to investigate the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from fatty acids of saponified palm oil as a carbon source using Pseudomonas fluorescens TISTR 358. The batch experiments were setup in an incubator shaker with 180 rpm at 30ºC. Varying the concentrations of fatty acids including 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.50% (w/v), respectively and initial pH 7.0. The results showed that the concentrations of carbon sources influenced cell growth, pH and the PHAs production. The maximum of cell dry weight were 1.63, 1.60, 1.08 and 1.05 g L-1 which were observed in fatty acids concentrations of 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.50% (w/v), respectively at 48 hrs incubation. The highest PHAs content after 72 hrs incubation was 12.61% (0.17 g L-1) of fatty acids concentrations was 0.50% (w/v). The microbial cells showed high red fluorescent, when the cells were determined using the fluorescent dye Nile red and the PHAs granule of intracellular the microbial cell were seen by transmission electron microscope. The results indicated that P. fluorescens TISTR 358 could produce PHAs in an intracellular by using fatty acids from palm oil.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique for quality control of cold-pressed rice bran oil

Science

A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) method is developed and applied for fingerprint characterization of rice bran oil from Thai domestic production and quantitative determination of fatty acid compositions. Freshness evaluation was investigated by analysis of diacylglycerol or monoacylglycerol level in cold-pressed rice bran oil. The investigation using  -carbon intensity of triacylglycerol as reference peak and internal standard demonstrated that the method presented variance (Analysis of variance, p 0.05) with high Level of Confidence (95%). This method allows rapid identification of rice bran oil in the market, claimed as cold-pressed rice bran oil from domestic production in Thailand. Applying NMR technique, Thai export industry of rice bran oils can meet satisfied specification by international importers without many wet, dirty and error prone chemical methods in Quality Control laboratory. Qualitative analysis of diacylglycerol or monoacylglycerol showed no signal in freshly samples, but revealed with slightly stronger peaks after one year storage, represent by proportion of 1,2-diacylglycerol and 1- monoacylglycerol in triacylglycerol which changed over time. Results obtained in this study will serve as quality control and useful reference for supplement development and pharmaceutical industry.

Drying of Katoy Squid Using Solar Thermal Energy

Science

This research was aimed to study the dried baby squids (or called Katoy squids in Thai) and to compare the squids dried outdoors with those dried in the oven heated from a flat plate solar collector. The experiment kit was developed including clear plastic chamber of 0.125 cubic meters as well as flat-plate solar collector. The chamber and the flat-plate solar collector are connected by a duct. The flat plate solar collector is composed of the sheet which absorbs the heat from the copper plate with a thickness of 2 mm. This plate was painted black with the approximate area of 0.5 square meters. The one-kilogram squids were experimented during 8.00 - 17.00 hrs. On average, the radiation intensity was over 661 watts per square meters. The squids, at first, indicated 400 percent moisture content. The results reveal that comparing the squids dried by the sunlight with those dried in the specific oven, the moisture content declined to 170 and 70 percent respectively. The rates of moisture reduction were 23.4 and 35.1 percent per hour respectively. When the squids were further dried in the oven with the heat from gas until they showed the moisture as required, the drying time was lessen. Consequently, the gas consumption was reduced by an average of 22.5 percent. The study of the drying efficiency of the squids on hourly basis, it was found that the drying efficiency decreases as the radiation intensity increases. This indicates that the drying rate is invariant. Also, the research pointed out the drying efficiency of 31.0 percent.

A Water-Balance-Based Dual-Axis Sun Tracking System

Science

This paper presents a new technique for solar tracking system with very low power consumption. In order to track the sunlight, the solar panels connecting to the floated-balls are moved by water level balance adjusting. The proposed system is controlled by micro-controller. The signals from light-dependent resistor (LDR) sensor and reference voltage are compared and used to control the 12 V DC windshield washer pump for adjusting the water level which corresponds to the sunlight perpendicular. As a result, the accuracy of solar tracking depending on water level varying is achieved. The proposed system has ability to control with 2 axes; north-south and east-west. A comparison result between the proposed system and conventional method with one solar panel shows that the improvement of the sun power harvest of 7.91 W or higher than 37.63 % is given by the proposed system. It is also found that by using one solar panel for five days operating with twelve hours per day, the proposed solar tracking system has ability to harvest the energy of 347.16 Wh/day with power consumption of 0.66 Wh/day. When three solar panels are employed, the energy harvest of 1212.84 Wh/day with power consumption of 1.76 Wh/day is obtained. Additionally, the power consumptions between the proposed system and the DC motor controller of solar tracking systems using for one solar panel are compared. The results show that the DC motor controller shows power consumption of 10.8 Wh/day or 1.147 % whereas the energy of 0.66 Wh/day or 0.19 % is consumed by the proposed system. It is reveal that the lower power consumption of 0.958 % is given by the proposed system. Therefore, the proposed system has ability to reduce the power consumption of the solar tracking system.

Preparation and Characterizations of Recycled Polystyrene Foam/PCC flyash Composite for Use as Anti-electrostatic Discharge Material.

Science

Composites with various formulations were prepared from recycled polystyrene foam and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash by solution casting technique, using toluene as a solvent. PCC fly ash content was varied from 0 to 40 %wt. Chemical structure of the composite film was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Tensile properties, morphology, water contact angle, and surface resistivity were also examined. The experimental results showed that with the increment of PCC fly ash content, the elongation at break of the composites increased while the Young s modulus decreased. SEM images of the polystyrene/PCC fly ash composites exhibited good dispersion of Fe2O3 and SiO2 particles in polystyrene matrix. Moreover, it was found that water contact angle and surface resistivity of the composites decreased with increasing PCC fly ash content. The surface resistivity of the composites was reduced from 1.03×1011 to 5.93×1010 Ω/square as the PCC fly ash content increased from 10 to 40 %wt. These imply that the proposed recycled polystyrene foam/PCC fly ash composites can be potentially used as anti-electrostatic discharge materials.

The Study of Parameters Effect of Solidification Tubular Ice

Science

This study was aimed to investigate experimental study of the parameters affecting the amount of tube ice compared with theoretical result. Significant studied parameters were inlet water temperature, average ambient air temperature, average ambient refrigerative machinery room temperature and average temperature of surface freezing. The result showed thickness tendency was increasingly according to time. At the beginning of the process thickness increased quite fast and decelerated at the end of the production process, however thickness value acquired from parameters were not identical as average ambient air temperature, average ambient refrigerative machinery room temperature and average temperature of surface freezing slightly affected thickness comparing to the results of the study shown by the ratios between parameter. Inlet water temperature affected to thickness of tube ice as the ratio of inlet water temperature to thickness was 0.41 degrees celsius per milimeter. The ratio of average temperature of surface freezing to thickness was 0.2 degrees celsius per milimeter. The ratio of average ambient refrigerative machinery room temperature to thickness was 0.16 degrees celsius per milimeter, and the ratio of average ambient air temperature to thickness was 0.15 degrees celsius per milimeter. Thus, inlet water temperature affected to thickness of tube ice according to theoretically results with 8 percent error value between ice thickness and production time.

Preparation and Characterization of Poly(vinyl alcohol)/ferrofluid Composite for Use as Anti Electrostatic Discharge Material

Science

In this project, ferrofluid was synthesized by a co-precipitation method between iron (III) chloride hexahydrate and iron (II) chloride tetrahydrate with a 2:1 ratio in ammonium hydroxide solution, using tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide as a surfactant. The synthesized ferrofluid exhibited the viscosity of 6.5 cP. The chemical structure of Fe3O4 particle was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was carried out to study the surface, dispersion as well as particle size of Fe3O4. The synthesized ferrofluid was later used as a conductive filler in the preparation of polyvinyl alcohol/ferrofluid composites, at various ratios e.g., 0 ,5 ,10 ,15 and 20% w/w. Glutaraldehyde (0.5% w/w by weight of the polyvinyl alcohol) was used as a crosslinker. In order to evaluate the potential for use as anti-electrostatic discharge material, the properties of the prepared composites, such as mechanical properties, surface morphology, surface resistivity, and swelling ratio in water, were also investigated. The experimental results showed that the prepared composites exhibited the variation in mechanical properties, morphology, surface resistivity, and swelling ratio in water, depending on the Fe3O4 content. In conclusion, 10%w/w ferrofluid was the suitable amount for preparing the composite for use as anti-electrostatic discharge material.

Anti-electrostatic Discharge Materials from Chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) Blends

Science

In this study, various compositions of chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) blends, with and without crosslinking by glutaraldehyde, were prepared and their potential for use as anti-electrostatic discharge materials was evaluated. Morphology, tensile, and electrical properties of the blends were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile testing, and surface resistivity measurement, respectively. Finally, water contact angle of the blend surface was disclosed. The experimental results showed that chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) blends were immiscible. Elongation at break of the blends depended on poly(ethylene glycol) content. Introduction of glutaraldehyde crosslinker resulted in higher stiffness and lower flexibility of the blends. Surface resistivity measurements revealed that the blends exhibited the reduction in surface resistivity when poly(ethylene glycol) content and relative humidity increased. Further reduction in surface resistivity of the blends was observed when the blends were crosslinked. The lower water contact angle values reflected the increase in hydrophilicity of blends when poly(ethylene glycol) content increased. In contrast, the polymer blends with higher degree of crosslink showed higher values of water contact angle implying more hydrophobicity.

Electric Kiln for Craft Work

Science

The objectives of the study of Electric Kiln for Craft Works are to design and develop the high quality electric kiln to respond the present government s policy of OTOP project. The electric kiln should be beneficial to the productions of higher quality and more beautiful craft works. In this study, the researcher team had designed the prototype of small size of electric kiln using electricity to produce the proper heat on heating coils. The proper aspects of the kiln were calculated to meet the needs; they were its internal capacity, an amount of light bricks, the length of heating coil, heat insulator component, external steel structure, and the cost evaluation. The researcher team had designed the electric kiln by placing a number of light bricks on concrete base to form the designed internal and external outlines of the kiln. The testing process was begun gradually on the kiln components: baking at 800 degree Celsius along the first 8 hours, and later slowly increasing to be 1280 degree Celsius within 9.5 hours. The test result shown that the baking temperature of the kiln was higher than the defined one. On this study, the researcher team had added more coils on the ready – built kiln to get higher baking temperature; this additional action resulted from the advice of the experts. The designed kiln then had more efficiency and stability because of its design, controlling equipments, and its automatic baking timer at the end of the baking process: electricity circuit could be open automatically. According to its designs, the running process could be convenient, secure, of no pollution, of no wood consuming, and also beneficial for monetary advantage of the country, as well.

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