วารสารวิชาการเทคโนโลยีอุตสาหกรรม (J. Ind. Tech.) อยู่ในฐานข้อมูล Thai-Journal Citation Index Centre (TCI) กลุ่ม 1 (2564 - 2567) และ Asean Citation Index (ACI) มีค่า JIF = 0.094 และ T-JIF (3 ปีย้อนหลัง): 0.165 | The Journal of Industrial Technology (J. Ind. Tech.) is indexed in Thai-Journal Citation Index Centre (TCI) Tier 1 (2021 - 2024) and Asean Citation Index (ACI) with impact factor, T-JIF: 0.094 and 3-years T-JIF: 0.165

Articles

A Study of Operating Speed on Rural Highways Passing Community Zone

Civil Engineering

This paper describes a study of travel speed of vehicles passing community which located on roadside of rural highways. The objectives of this paper were to survey the number of vehicles which drove with excessive speed over speed limit of both outside and inside community area. To survey the operating speed and to survey operating speed after traffic engineering measures installation on study area. Ban Pa Yang community, Muang district in Nakhon Si Thammarat (NST) was selected as a study area. Traffic engineering measures will be selected from the speed survey results of vehicles passing community. The study results showed that the top three volumes of vehicles passing community were motorcycles, private cars and pick-up trucks, respectively. The survey results of operating speed showed that private cars drove passing community with excessive speed over speed limit of highways, however, the operating speed of trucks were gradually reduced before entering community and increased over speed limit again when passing community zone. Motorcycles were the only one vehicle type which drove lower than speed limits of both outside and inside community zone. Transition zone area was a traffic engineering measure which was defined the distance for reducing speed before entering community by calculated from the data of speed survey outside community area. The average operating speed outside and inside community study area was evaluated by paired-sample t – test statistic. The survey results showed that the average operating speed of trucks and motorcycles after measures installation on transition zone were lower than the average operating speed of trucks and motorcycles before measures installation significant at a confidence level of 95%.

Accelerated and Real Carbonation Situations of Concrete

Civil Engineering

This research aims to study the carbonation of concrete partially replaced fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and limestone powder in ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The concrete 100 x 100 x 100 mm specimens were used in this study. The concrete samples were cured in water for 28 days, and then exposed to carbon dioxide. Concrete specimens were divided in two parts. The first part was exposed to carbonation in carbonation catalyst chamber for 90 days. The second one was placed in the atmosphere exposed to carbon dioxide at kilometer No.52 on Phetkasem Road, Muang district, Nakhon Pathom Province for 90, 180 and 270 days. The results indicated that the carbonation of concrete with fly ash and concrete with GGBS was significantly higher than that of OPC concrete, while the carbonation of concrete with limestone powder was close to that of OPC concrete. Furthermore, the carbonation of concrete in carbonation catalyst chamber, having more carbon dioxide, was greater than that of concrete in atmosphere exposed. In addition, the carbonation coefficient of concrete with fly ash and concrete with GGBS was higher than that of OPC concrete, while the carbonation coefficient of concrete with limestone powder was nearly the same when compared to that with OPC concrete. Finally, the carbonation depth of concrete exposed to carbon dioxide in the real situation can predict from the depth of carbonation of concrete in accelerated situation.

Applications of Statistical Model in Proportioning of Concrete Block to Minimum Cost

Civil Engineering

The purpose of this study is to apply the statistical design of experiment in the field of civil engineering. The advantages of using statistical experimental design are the reduction of the number of samples, shorten the experimental period and save cost of the experiment. The results obtained from statistical analysis have more reliable than the traditional method. This study used the statistical experimental design to find the mix proportion of concrete block that conform the TIS 58-2533 standard at the lowest possible production cost as the case study of the research. In each year, demand of concrete block is increasing throughout the country. Since there are no standard mix proportion for concrete block, commonly sold concrete blocks in the market do not possess properties as required in the standard. Statistical methodology is applied to predict compressive strength and calculated optimum mix proportions for concrete block. From test results, it was shown that the using of factorial design and central composite design were suitable for the optimization of concrete block. The simulated model can be satisfactorily used to predict compressive strength of concrete block in the test program. Four optimum mix proportions have been found. For concrete block which uses Chipped stone as raw material, suggested mix proportion was 1 : 3 : 8 : 4 [cement : coarse sand : crushed dust : Chipped stone] by weight for machine production (non-hydraulic type) and 1 : 3 : 10 : 5 [cement : coarse sand : crushed dust : Chipped stone] by weight for machine production (hydraulic type). For concrete block which does not use Chipped stone as raw material, suggested mix proportion was 1 : 2 : 10 [cement : coarse sand : crushed dust] by weight for machine production (nonhydraulic type) and 1 : 3 : 13 [cement : coarse sand : crushed dust] by weight for machine production (hydraulic type). All suggested mix proportions require less production cost than normally used mix proportions in the market. It can be concluded that the production cost does not necessarily increase in order to produce a standard concrete block.

Arbitration in Administrative Construction Contract

Civil Engineering

The purpose of this research is to study administrative law, the practice of arbitration under the Arbitration Act B.E. 2545, foreign arbitration laws and the problems of arbitration in administrative construction contract of Thailand in comparison with foreign countries, namely Germany, France, England and the United States. This research emphasized on studying construction contract cases in which a party is a government agency and the private sector based on author experience in order to provide solution and recommendation for the development, improvement or amendment of Thailand administrative law related arbitration process. The research found that the main factors that make government still have to face problems arising from dispute resolution by arbitration and the dispute is proposed to administrative court causing consumption of time and financial expense is the lack of substantive and procedural laws for specifying the compulsory details in preparation of an arbitration agreement in administrative construction contact that is not yet comprehensive and still inadequacy. The comparison of foreign laws found that some countries have established rules for preparation of arbitration contract in addition to general principles included specification of subject matters of dispute that can be resolved by arbitration and maximum amount of money for which the arbitrator can order the parties to pay when the decision is made. Therefore, the study proposes to establish a new law for administrative construction contact with such criterions included.

Biocementation through Microbial Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

Civil Engineering

Biocementation through microbial carbonate precipitation is a new branch of microbial geotechnology that deals with the applications of microbiological methods to produce cemented materials used in engineering. The primary consideration of these applications is to improve the geophysical properties of soil so that it will be suitable for construction and environmental purposes. The applications of biocementation would require an interdisciplinary research at the confluence of microbiology, ecology, geochemistry, civil and environmental engineering. This new field has the potential to meet society s expanding needs for innovative treatment processes that improve soil engineering properties. This paper presents an overview of biocementation, particularly through microbial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation, and non-destructive geophysical techniques for real-time monitoring of soil engineering properties. Focus is then narrowed to an example of laboratory-scale test of biocementation of sandy soil and measurement of strength development by shear wave velocity (Vs). Other analytical results included microscopic imaging by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and identification of CaCO3 precipitation presented in biocemented sand by X-ray diffactometer (XRD) were discussed. Potential advantages and envisioned applications of biocemented soil improvement are identified.

Compressive Strength and Treatment Efficiency of Nitrogen-Dioxide of Paving Block Made of Concrete Mixing with Titanium-Dioxide

Civil Engineering

This research studied the treatment efficiency of Nitrogen-dioxide (NO2) in air using concrete paving block containing Titanium-dioxide (TiO2) which were 5x5x5 cm3 cubic specimens. They were plastered with concrete mixed with TiO2 in the percentage of 0, 5, 10, and 15 by weight for the top layer of the specimens at 1 cm. This research studied the effect of doges of TiO2 on compressive strength at the age of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days and the NO2 treatment in air. The 28-cured days of specimens treated NO2 for several cycles (48 hours / cycle). The results showed that the doges of TiO2 did not effect on the compressive strengths of concrete paving block which was higher than designed mixes. For NO2 treatment, the treatment efficiency of concrete paving block containing 15 wt.% of Titanium-dioxide had higher than the specimens. The 1st cycle for treatment had the efficiency of 48% and decreased when retreated in next cycles. At the 7 th cycles, the efficiency of concrete paving block decreased to lower than 10%. After that the tested specimens were polished in order to remove the surface of concrete paving block for 0.1 cm. and retested. The efficiency of retested specimens was similar to new specimens. The polished surface of concrete paving block was stimulated corrosion on pathway and road. In addition, concrete paving block containing Titanium-dioxide were soaked in diluted Sulfuric acid in order to stimulated contact with acid rain. The results showed that concrete paving block containing Titanium-dioxide soaked in diluted Sulfuric acid (pH = 5) had the strength development and NO2 treatment efficiency were lower than when compared with specimens which soaked in water about 10 to 20 percent

Construction Technology of Mat Foundation Concrete for Tall Building

Civil Engineering

The mat foundation is generally used in tall building in order to transfer vertical load of columns down to piles. Because of the mat foundation had large dimension, especially the high thickness, the temperature rise of the concrete is concerned. Thermal cracking problem from the temperature difference between surface and centre of the mat foundation concrete has to be prevented. This paper presents a case study of construction technology for mat foundation concrete in tall building. The mat foundation had dimensions of 30.1x34.7 meter with thickness of 2.5 meter to support super structure of tall building which had total height of 146 meter (40 stories), and had sky pool at roof deck. The method statements of concrete work to construct the mat foundation were shown. The large volume of 2,850 m3 of low heat concrete is supplied to cast the mat foundation. The temperature rises of mat foundation concrete were monitored until 7 days of curing with insulation. The results indicated that the low heat concrete containing fly ash generated the highest temperature of 76.4°C. In addition, the temperature difference between surface and centre of the mat foundation concrete were not more than 20°C, within structural specification limited. As a result, the thermal cracking is not occurred in this mat foundation concrete when this method statement of construction is performed.

Development application on tablet for increase construction inspection efficiency

Civil Engineering

This research aims to develop application for increase the construction inspection efficiency and evaluate the performance by the construction inspector who has been using and not using this tool. The tool was created to divide the work into two parts: the web site and a portable computer (Tablet). The user can monitor the construction work in Web site. This tool can record comments about the shortcomings and improvement in the construction work in each period. Content in this tool used principles of construction inspection of the Engineering Institute of Thailand (EIT), which was used as the reference. This tool are created and developed by the specialist in the field of construction and information technology. The next step to evaluate performance in the construction inspection by 30 users who was the construction inspectors in type of reinforced concrete buildings projects. The topics of performance are five terms which were to evaluate the effectiveness of each side. The results showed that score highest in terms of performance, convenience and coordination of the construction. And terms second is ability to increase knowledge and understanding, confidence and transparency construction inspectors. Which shows that this tool makes the job particularly those who have no knowledge of terms construction work is to understand more in construction. It also makes it more transparent in the work with And also makes it easy to work even more.

Development of Porous Lightweight Concrete Block for Green Building

Civil Engineering

The research developed concrete block having property for saving energy. The no-fine concrete is used to produce porous concrete block which lighter weight than typical concrete block, and have lower thermal conductivity resulted in heat transfer reduction from outside into the building. The porous concrete block has similar cost with typical concrete block so the person who has low revenue can use to build their house. In this study, the water to cement ratio is used in the range between 0.25 to 0.45 and the total weight of mixture to cement ratio in the range between 6.0 and 12.0. Crushed limestone with single size of 3/8” (10 mm.) is used as coarse aggregate. By considering the compressive strength, unit weight and production cost, the optimum proportion to produce porous concrete block is 1 : 9.33 by weight (cement : aggregate) or 1 : 11 by volume and water to cement ratio is 0.367. The compressive strength at day 28of curing of porous concrete block is 52.22 kg/cm3 and unit weight is 1,629 kg/m3. The porous concrete block have lower unit weight and thermal conductivity than typical concrete block about 20% and 45%, respectively. The production cost without wage is about 2.12 baht per unit which is similar to the typical concrete block. Thus, it suggested that the porous concrete block can conserved energy by reduced weight of structure and heat transfer to the building.

Effect of Addition of Free Lime in Fly Ash on Expansion and Weight Loss in Sulfate Solution of Mortar with Fly Ash and Limestone Powder

Civil Engineering

This research was aimed to study the effect of free lime (Free CaO) content in fly ash on expansion and weight loss of cement mortars, fly ash and limestone powder submerged in sulfate solutions. Free lime was added to the original fly ash in order to vary free lime content of fly ash. Test results revealed that the expansion of type I cement mortar was higher than that of type V cement mortar in sodium sulfate solution. It was also found that the expansion of mixture with 10% replacement of limestone powder was about the same as that of type V mixture. The expansion of binary mixtures with fly ash and ternary mixtures with cement, fly ash and limestone powder depended very much on the content and type of fly ash such that mixtures with low or higher replacement ratio of low CaO fly ash yielded low expansion. In case of high CaO fly ash, the expansion of mortar with higher fly ash content was lower than the mortar with high fly ash content. In magnesium sulfate solution, weight loss of type I cement mortar was higher than those of type V cement mortar and mortar with limestone powder. Weight loss of mortars with 20% and 40% fly ash were higher than those of type I and type V cement mortars. Ternary mixture incorporating cement, fly ash and limestone powder showed lower weight loss than type I cement mixture and was similar to type V cement mixture. Free lime content of fly ash had no effect on the expansion and weight loss of mortar in sulfate solutions.

Effect of Curing Time On Strength Of Geopolymer Mortar Incorporating Silica Waste

Civil Engineering

งานวิจัยนี้มีวัตถุประสงค์เพื่อศึกษาผลของระยะเวลาบ่มต่อกำลังรับแรงอัดของจีโอพอลิเมอร์มอร์ต้าร์จากของเสียซิลิกา ศึกษาลักษณะทางกายภาพและเคมีของของเสียซิลิกาที่ใช้ในงานวิจัยจีโอพอลิเมอร์มอร์ต้าร์ อัตราส่วนของเสียซิลิกาต่ออะลูมินาบริสุทธ์ิ และอัตราส่วนวัสดุประสานต่อสารละลายโซเดียมไฮดรอกไซด์ต่อสารละลายโซเดียมซิลิเกต โดยเตรียมจีโอพอลิเมอร์มอร์ต้าร์ ขนาด 5 × 5 × 5 ลูกบาศก์เซนติเมตร บ่มที่อุณหภูมิ 60 องศาเซลเซียส เป็นเวลา 24 ชั่วโมง และทดสอบกำลังรับแรงอัดที่ระยะเวลา 1, 3, 7 และ 14 วัน ผลการศึกษาลักษณะสมบัติทางกายภาพและเคมีของ ของเสียซิลิกา พบว่ามีองค์ประกอบหลักคือ ซิลิกอนไดออกไซด์ร้อยละ 71.3 ผลการทดสอบการชะละลายด้วยวิธีการสกัดสารพบว่าปริมาณโลหะหนักในน้ำสกัดมีค่าต่ำกว่ามาตรฐานตามประกาศกระทรวง อุตสาหกรรม ซึ่งแสดงว่า ของเสียซิลิกาไม่จัดเป็นของเสียอันตรายและผลการศึกษาสภาวะที่เหมาะสมในการผลิตจีโอพอลิเมอร์มอร์ ต้าร์ พบว่าอัตราส่วนที่เหมาะสมของเสียซิลิกาต่ออะลูมิน่าบริสุทธ์ิ คือ 2:1 สัดส่วนของวัสดุประสานต่อสารละลายโซเดียมไฮดรอก ไซด์ต่อสารละลายโซเดียมซิลิเกตที่เหมาะสม คือ อัตราส่วน 70:10:20 (B2) โดยน้ำหนัก สามารถรับกำลังรับแรงอัด 199 กก./ซม.2 ซึ่งผ่านเกณฑ์ที่ออกแบบ คือ 180 กก./ซม.2 ในวันแรกของการทดสอบและอัตราส่วน 60:20:20 (A1) โดยน้ำหนัก ผ่านเกณฑ์ที่ ออกแบบไว้ในวันที่ 3 ของการทดสอบ โดยสามารถรับกำลังรับแรงอัด 194 กก./ซม.2

Factors of Alkali Solutions Affecting Physical Properties and Microstructure of Fly Ash Geopolymer MortarContaining Portland Cement

Civil Engineering

This article investigated the factors of alkali activated solutions affecting mechanical properties and microstructure of fly ash (FA) geopolymer containing Portland cement type I (PC). The PC was used to replace FA at the dosages of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of binder. The alkali activated solution of 10 molar of sodium hydroxide only (NH), 10 molar of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution (NHWG), and sodium silicate solution only (WG) were used as the liquid portion in the mixture. The test results indicated that the type of alkali activated solutions for producing the geopolymer affecting mechanical properties and microstructure of FA geopolymer containing PC. The alkali activators significantly affected the reaction products of geopolymer matrix. The use of NHWG solution gave higher compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of FA geopolymer mortar than those of NH solution only and WG solution only. Moreover, the use of NHWG solution was found to have more peak of calcium silicate hydrate and amorphous phase of FA geopolymer containing PC in XRD pattern than those of NH solution and WG solution only. This was corresponded to SEM results of FA geopolymer paste, which appeared denser and more homogeneous matrix.

Influence of Node, Cross-sectional size, and Moisture Content on Tensile

Civil Engineering

The influences of the presence of node, cross-sectional size, and moisture content of test specimen on the tensile strength of bamboos were investigated in this research. Two types of Thai s bamboo, Tong bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer) and Seesuk bamboo (Bambusa blumeana Schult), were chosen for this study. Test specimens were cut from both nodal and inter-nodal zones of a bamboo culm. They were then shaped into small circular cross-sections with diameters of 2, 4, and 6 mm The test specimens were tested under a direct tensile loading until failure. The results indicated that the presence of a node in the test specimen diminished the bamboo tensile strength. The tensile strength of the nodal zone of Tong bamboo and Seesuk bamboo varied from 178 – 367 N/mm2 and 134 – 242 N/mm2, respectively, which were lower than that of the inter-nodal zone about 1.1 – 2.0 times for both bamboos and these discrepancies reduced with increasing specimen diameter. For the effect of cross-sectional size, a reduced diameter of the test specimen resulted in an increase in tensile strength of bamboo. The test specimen with small diameter (2 mm) showed the inter-nodal tensile strength of 734 N/mm2 and 490 N/mm2 for Tong bamboo and Seesuk bamboo, respectively, which were 3.65 and 3.14 times higher than the tensile strength of the test specimen with large diameter (6 mm). In addition, the bamboo specimen with lower moisture content exhibited higher tensile strength than that with higher moisture content about 9.4 – 31.7 percent.

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