วารสารวิชาการเทคโนโลยีอุตสาหกรรม (J. Ind. Tech.) อยู่ในฐานข้อมูล TCI กลุ่ม 2 (2563) มีค่า JIF = 0.094 | The Journal of Industrial Technology (J. Ind. Tech.) is indexed in TCI Tier 2 (2020) with impact factor, JTIF 0.094

Articles

Factors of Alkali Solutions Affecting Physical Properties and Microstructure of Fly Ash Geopolymer MortarContaining Portland Cement

Civil Engineering

This article investigated the factors of alkali activated solutions affecting mechanical properties and microstructure of fly ash (FA) geopolymer containing Portland cement type I (PC). The PC was used to replace FA at the dosages of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of binder. The alkali activated solution of 10 molar of sodium hydroxide only (NH), 10 molar of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution (NHWG), and sodium silicate solution only (WG) were used as the liquid portion in the mixture. The test results indicated that the type of alkali activated solutions for producing the geopolymer affecting mechanical properties and microstructure of FA geopolymer containing PC. The alkali activators significantly affected the reaction products of geopolymer matrix. The use of NHWG solution gave higher compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of FA geopolymer mortar than those of NH solution only and WG solution only. Moreover, the use of NHWG solution was found to have more peak of calcium silicate hydrate and amorphous phase of FA geopolymer containing PC in XRD pattern than those of NH solution and WG solution only. This was corresponded to SEM results of FA geopolymer paste, which appeared denser and more homogeneous matrix.

Loss in Shear Strength of Soil under Driven Pile Foundation in Wetland and the Problem Solving

Civil Engineering

This article is the result of a study of construction driven pile foundation problems in the large building construction project in Uttaradit. The soil in this construction area was a quite complex, non-homogeneous soil consisting of clay, silt, and silty clay mixed in combination layers at various depths and spread across the region from the surface grade elevation to 13.00 meters depth. At approximately 14.00 meters depth, soil properties change to a very dense to dense sand and gravel. Moreover, the layers also revealed that the ground water table (GWT) varied dramatically by season, affecting the moisture content of the soil. As a result, the undrained shear strength, Su at the pile tip reduced by 48 percent. Consequently, the original design pile size of 0.30 x 0.30 square meters, x 10.00 meters long, with a variable on the N – Value from the boring in the summer when the GWT is lower and no ground water exists in the bore hole is over value, over extended periods of time (more than 24 hours). Consequently, the original designed pile length is no longer sufficient to bear the required load, which has been confirmed by testing bearing capacity using dynamic load testing methods. The solution for solving the problem is to increase the length of pile and driving it to the appropriate soil layer. This solution will result in an increase in the cost of construction of the building. The problem illustrates the need for proper data from planning to bore sampling by considering seasonal impacts for analyzing and designing to ensure a safe working

Potential Analysis for Urban and Infrastructure planning in Prachinburi comprehensive plan

Civil Engineering

This research aims to analyze on the land suitability, to study potential in urban area and the access by analyzing the space syntax in Prachinburi comprehensive plan that is the study area. The study was concluded that the suitable areas for residence and commerce were found along to Tatsanavitee Road and some along to Ratdamri Road , Prachin-Ta Kam, Khaew Phichit Road, Prachinnusorn Road. Consequently, most of the areas above are easily connected to the main road, also near the activities groups associating with the development area. Besides, the suitable areas for industry were found somewhere around Sakrityutthasin Road, some around the bypass and the highway no. 319. In addition, the suitable areas for agriculture were generally found all almost common areas; both the municipality and the surrounding areas but it is the highest density at the outskirts of the municipality. The cause may be the geography with Prachinburi River flowing through that area, so it is the important water source for agriculture. Hence, it makes these areas are high potential in agricultural development. However, there are still some areas that were reduced by the factor; some flooded areas are seriously damaged to areas in the town, Prachinburi. According to the data analysis, it conduces to the improvement of Prachinburi comprehensive plan.

Properties of concrete made from industrial wastes containing calcium carbide residue palm oil fuel ash rice husk-bark ash and recycled aggregates

Civil Engineering

This concrete was made by using several industrial wastes in both binder and aggregates. Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mixed separately with palm oil fuel ash (PA) and rice husk-bark ash (RA), and was used as a binder instead of Portland cement in the concrete mixture. Furthermore, recycled aggregates were fully replaced natural aggregates in order to cast concrete specimens (CCR-PA and CCR-RA concretes). Concrete properties namely compressive strength, chloride migration, and water permeability of CCR-PA and CCR-RA concretes were evaluated and compared with the conventional concrete (CON concrete). The results indicated that CCR-PA and CCR-RA binders could be used as a new cementitious material in recycled aggregate concrete, even though the CCR-PA and CCR-RA binders contained no Portland cement. The characteristic compressive strength of CCR-PA and CCR-RA concretes developed similar to CON concrete. Moreover, CCR-PA and CCR-RA binders in the mixtures were effectively improving the chloride migration and water permeability of recycled aggregate concretes. These results also suggested that CCR-PA and CCR-RA concretes can be used as a new environmental friendly concrete because of these concretes can reduce as much as CO2 emissions and environmental problems.

Use of Calcium Carbide Residue-Fly ash as Binder to Produce High Workability Concrete

Civil Engineering

This research aims to use calcium carbide residue and fly ash mixture as a binder instead of using Portland cement in order to produce high workability concrete. The binder used a ratio of 30:70 by weight for ground calcium carbide residue and both original and ground fly ash, CR-OF and CR-FA, respectively. In addition, Portland cement Type I (OPC) was used as strength accelerator at a ratio of 10 percent by weight of the binder, CRFA( 10). The slump flow of all fresh concrete mixtures was determined, and was maintained between 600 to 800 mm. Furthermore, the slump loss of concrete was also determined. The cylindrical concrete specimens, 100 mm in diameter and 200 mm in height, were cast and no required vibration for placing and compaction. The compressive strengths of the concrete were tested at the ages of 3, 7, 28, 60 and 90 days. The results indicated that the calcium carbide residual and fly ash mixture could be used as a binder to produce high workability concrete with slump flow between 740 to 760 mm. In addition, CR-OF, CR-FA, and CR-FA(10) concretes had slump flow higher, and had slump loss lower than that of normal concrete which using Portland cement. The CR-OF and CR-FA concretes gave the compressive strengths of 153 and 225 ksc at 90 days although the binder without using Portland cement, respectively. The use of high fineness of fly ash and OPC strength accelerator can enhance compressive strength gain for calcium carbide residue-fly ash concrete. Although the concrete no required vibration for placing and compaction, the CR-FA(10) concrete had compressive strengths of 210 and 252 ksc at 28 and 90 days, respectively.

Applications of Statistical Model in Proportioning of Concrete Block to Minimum Cost

Civil Engineering

The purpose of this study is to apply the statistical design of experiment in the field of civil engineering. The advantages of using statistical experimental design are the reduction of the number of samples, shorten the experimental period and save cost of the experiment. The results obtained from statistical analysis have more reliable than the traditional method. This study used the statistical experimental design to find the mix proportion of concrete block that conform the TIS 58-2533 standard at the lowest possible production cost as the case study of the research. In each year, demand of concrete block is increasing throughout the country. Since there are no standard mix proportion for concrete block, commonly sold concrete blocks in the market do not possess properties as required in the standard. Statistical methodology is applied to predict compressive strength and calculated optimum mix proportions for concrete block. From test results, it was shown that the using of factorial design and central composite design were suitable for the optimization of concrete block. The simulated model can be satisfactorily used to predict compressive strength of concrete block in the test program. Four optimum mix proportions have been found. For concrete block which uses Chipped stone as raw material, suggested mix proportion was 1 : 3 : 8 : 4 [cement : coarse sand : crushed dust : Chipped stone] by weight for machine production (non-hydraulic type) and 1 : 3 : 10 : 5 [cement : coarse sand : crushed dust : Chipped stone] by weight for machine production (hydraulic type). For concrete block which does not use Chipped stone as raw material, suggested mix proportion was 1 : 2 : 10 [cement : coarse sand : crushed dust] by weight for machine production (nonhydraulic type) and 1 : 3 : 13 [cement : coarse sand : crushed dust] by weight for machine production (hydraulic type). All suggested mix proportions require less production cost than normally used mix proportions in the market. It can be concluded that the production cost does not necessarily increase in order to produce a standard concrete block.

Strength Development and Sulfate Durability of Waste Clear Bottle Glass Aggregate Concrete Containing Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

Civil Engineering

This research investigated compressive strength development and magnesium sulfate durability of concrete using waste clear glass clue (WCGC) as coarse aggregate blending sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) with high value of loss on ignition. SBA was replaced partially of Portland cement, Type I in proportion of 15, 20 and 25wt.%. Water to binder ratio of 0.4 was constant throughout the study and cubic specimens were prepared in size of 100×100×100 mm3 under atmosphere of 26°C with 80% relative humidity. The specimens were uncured and cured in water for 7 and 28 days. Physico-mechanical properties of concrete were determined on water absorption, bulk density, Shore hardness, electrical resistivity, compressive strength and volumetric drying shrinkage. Magnesium sulfate durability of uncured specimens was performed in saturated magnesium sulfate solution for 8 weeks. X-ray diffraction and microstructure with Scanning Electron Microscope were analysed on the selected high strength specimen. The 28-day compressive strength of 15%SBA displayed the highest value of 43 MPa and can be suppressed magnesium sulfate attack in deleterious concrete. It was also revealed that coarse aggregate contained WCGC presented a negligible effect on the physical-mechanical properties of concrete

Development of Porous Lightweight Concrete Block for Green Building

Civil Engineering

The research developed concrete block having property for saving energy. The no-fine concrete is used to produce porous concrete block which lighter weight than typical concrete block, and have lower thermal conductivity resulted in heat transfer reduction from outside into the building. The porous concrete block has similar cost with typical concrete block so the person who has low revenue can use to build their house. In this study, the water to cement ratio is used in the range between 0.25 to 0.45 and the total weight of mixture to cement ratio in the range between 6.0 and 12.0. Crushed limestone with single size of 3/8” (10 mm.) is used as coarse aggregate. By considering the compressive strength, unit weight and production cost, the optimum proportion to produce porous concrete block is 1 : 9.33 by weight (cement : aggregate) or 1 : 11 by volume and water to cement ratio is 0.367. The compressive strength at day 28of curing of porous concrete block is 52.22 kg/cm3 and unit weight is 1,629 kg/m3. The porous concrete block have lower unit weight and thermal conductivity than typical concrete block about 20% and 45%, respectively. The production cost without wage is about 2.12 baht per unit which is similar to the typical concrete block. Thus, it suggested that the porous concrete block can conserved energy by reduced weight of structure and heat transfer to the building.

Development application on tablet for increase construction inspection efficiency

Civil Engineering

This research aims to develop application for increase the construction inspection efficiency and evaluate the performance by the construction inspector who has been using and not using this tool. The tool was created to divide the work into two parts: the web site and a portable computer (Tablet). The user can monitor the construction work in Web site. This tool can record comments about the shortcomings and improvement in the construction work in each period. Content in this tool used principles of construction inspection of the Engineering Institute of Thailand (EIT), which was used as the reference. This tool are created and developed by the specialist in the field of construction and information technology. The next step to evaluate performance in the construction inspection by 30 users who was the construction inspectors in type of reinforced concrete buildings projects. The topics of performance are five terms which were to evaluate the effectiveness of each side. The results showed that score highest in terms of performance, convenience and coordination of the construction. And terms second is ability to increase knowledge and understanding, confidence and transparency construction inspectors. Which shows that this tool makes the job particularly those who have no knowledge of terms construction work is to understand more in construction. It also makes it more transparent in the work with And also makes it easy to work even more.

A Study of Operating Speed on Rural Highways Passing Community Zone

Civil Engineering

This paper describes a study of travel speed of vehicles passing community which located on roadside of rural highways. The objectives of this paper were to survey the number of vehicles which drove with excessive speed over speed limit of both outside and inside community area. To survey the operating speed and to survey operating speed after traffic engineering measures installation on study area. Ban Pa Yang community, Muang district in Nakhon Si Thammarat (NST) was selected as a study area. Traffic engineering measures will be selected from the speed survey results of vehicles passing community. The study results showed that the top three volumes of vehicles passing community were motorcycles, private cars and pick-up trucks, respectively. The survey results of operating speed showed that private cars drove passing community with excessive speed over speed limit of highways, however, the operating speed of trucks were gradually reduced before entering community and increased over speed limit again when passing community zone. Motorcycles were the only one vehicle type which drove lower than speed limits of both outside and inside community zone. Transition zone area was a traffic engineering measure which was defined the distance for reducing speed before entering community by calculated from the data of speed survey outside community area. The average operating speed outside and inside community study area was evaluated by paired-sample t – test statistic. The survey results showed that the average operating speed of trucks and motorcycles after measures installation on transition zone were lower than the average operating speed of trucks and motorcycles before measures installation significant at a confidence level of 95%.

Synthesis of Geopolymer From Water Treatment Residue and Palm Oil Fuel Ash

Civil Engineering

This research aimed at synthesizing the geopolymer of water treatment residue and palm oil fuel ash using proper suitable SiO2/Al2O3 ratios by varying the results of compressive strength test and also to examine the quality and microstructure of solidified waste cubes after the maximum of 60 days curing. In the test, the microstructure analysis techniques of XRF XRD SEM were employed. The findings revealed that the proper ratios of SiO2/Al2O3 in synthesizing geopolymer at 2.50 could develop geopolymerization reaction. (In SiO2/Al2O3 test were 1.77, 2.00, 2.50 and 3.00) It was also found that the synthetic geopolymer with optimum compressive strength at 40.56 Ksc. In employing the microstructure analysis technique of XRD and SEM, the changes inside geopolymer structure both before and after the mixing were found. The results can indicate the developing of geopolymerization reaction and synthetic geopolymer products inside the structure of Aluminosilicate source regarding the internal changes as follows; it was found that the peak of Quartz, Potassium Aluminum Silicate (KAlSi2O6), and X-rays diffraction had been superseded by the structure solid of Sodium Aluminum Silicate Hydrate (Na96Al96Si96O384.216H2O; NASH). It was also found Silicon, Aluminum, and Sodium at the same bonding position structure of NASH. As a result, the synthesis of the geopolymer of water treatment residue and palm oil fuel ash can developing strength and changing inside geopolymer structure by appear geopolymer product. Both starting materials can be synthesized and applied in environmental filed.

Arbitration in Administrative Construction Contract

Civil Engineering

The purpose of this research is to study administrative law, the practice of arbitration under the Arbitration Act B.E. 2545, foreign arbitration laws and the problems of arbitration in administrative construction contract of Thailand in comparison with foreign countries, namely Germany, France, England and the United States. This research emphasized on studying construction contract cases in which a party is a government agency and the private sector based on author experience in order to provide solution and recommendation for the development, improvement or amendment of Thailand administrative law related arbitration process. The research found that the main factors that make government still have to face problems arising from dispute resolution by arbitration and the dispute is proposed to administrative court causing consumption of time and financial expense is the lack of substantive and procedural laws for specifying the compulsory details in preparation of an arbitration agreement in administrative construction contact that is not yet comprehensive and still inadequacy. The comparison of foreign laws found that some countries have established rules for preparation of arbitration contract in addition to general principles included specification of subject matters of dispute that can be resolved by arbitration and maximum amount of money for which the arbitrator can order the parties to pay when the decision is made. Therefore, the study proposes to establish a new law for administrative construction contact with such criterions included.

Accelerated and Real Carbonation Situations of Concrete

Civil Engineering

This research aims to study the carbonation of concrete partially replaced fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and limestone powder in ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The concrete 100 x 100 x 100 mm specimens were used in this study. The concrete samples were cured in water for 28 days, and then exposed to carbon dioxide. Concrete specimens were divided in two parts. The first part was exposed to carbonation in carbonation catalyst chamber for 90 days. The second one was placed in the atmosphere exposed to carbon dioxide at kilometer No.52 on Phetkasem Road, Muang district, Nakhon Pathom Province for 90, 180 and 270 days. The results indicated that the carbonation of concrete with fly ash and concrete with GGBS was significantly higher than that of OPC concrete, while the carbonation of concrete with limestone powder was close to that of OPC concrete. Furthermore, the carbonation of concrete in carbonation catalyst chamber, having more carbon dioxide, was greater than that of concrete in atmosphere exposed. In addition, the carbonation coefficient of concrete with fly ash and concrete with GGBS was higher than that of OPC concrete, while the carbonation coefficient of concrete with limestone powder was nearly the same when compared to that with OPC concrete. Finally, the carbonation depth of concrete exposed to carbon dioxide in the real situation can predict from the depth of carbonation of concrete in accelerated situation.

The Used Plastic Foam to be Utilized for Making Light Weight Coarse Aggregate in Concrete Work

Civil Engineering

The purpose of this study was to diminish foam problem that was unable to be dissevered naturally be itselt by bringing foam remained from using of be dissolved for forging as a rough combined material foam-cement. In this regard, engineering property of concrete in mechanical area would be considered. Testing was divided into two parts. Namely, finding out appropriateness in bringing foam to act as a rough combined mass for substituting rocks. Rare of water per cement was 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 Mixing of cement : sand : foam was 1:0.5:3, 1:0.5:4, 1:0.5:5 by capacity. Testing of morting pressing power was conducted at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. Mixing proportion for concrete making was sleeted using ratio of water per cement, namely, 0.7. Ratio of cement : sand : foam was 1:2.8:6.3, 1:2.2:5.3 by weight and twisting to find or pressing force resestant power of cylindrical concrete with 15 cm, in diameter and 30 cm, in height at the age of 28 days was conducted. Testing result of appropriate mixing ratio of mortar was ratio of cement : sand : foam, that was 1:0.5:3 by capacity. Ratio of water per cement was 0.5. Capacity of pressing power that was given at 28 days was 4.52 Megapascal and when cement foam had been brought to mix with concrete using mixing proportion 1:2.2:5.3 by weight and ratio of water per cement 0.7 to test pressing force resistant power at the age of 28 days of cement foam mixing concrete, it was able to receive maximum pressing force of 6.41 Megapascal, Modulus of breaking was 1.42 Megapascal.

The Use of Plastic Foam as Aggregate in Facing Brick*

Civil Engineering

Now a day in Thailand, we have enormous amount of foam dumped as refuse and this could be counted as a major pollution in the national level. To solve the problem, recycling is one way to look for an answer. If foam can be recycled, this will greatly reduce the amount of garbage. This research is concerned with feasibility of mixing refusal foam with concrete mixture, while replacing coarse and fine mass in the concrete itself, This research aims to manufacture facing brick. We can conclude that the ratio needed in order to manufacture facing brick is cement : sand : foam = 1:0:5:4 and the ratio of water to cement is 0.5 with the compression of 275 kg/cm3 and the density of 1400 kg/m3. After 28 days of test, it shows that the compressive strength yields the result of 58.92 kg/cm2. Also, the average density returned is 1416.5 kg/m3 and the average water absorbtion ability is 7.73%. Moreover, the compression needed for shaping the block is 275 kg/cm2. We can conclude that the heat conducting value is 0.0367 W/m.k and the heat insulating value is 27.24 m.k/W. This research demonstrates that the facing brick is a powerful light-weighted constructing material that can holds heavily loads and performs a very well function in absorbing water and preventing from water getting through. Also, it acts as a good insulator. At last, these facing brick finally prove themselves to be suitable for future buildings.

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